1 April 2010

KOMODITAS ANGGREK

KOMODITAS ANGGREK
PROQUEST 2005 (24 Judul)
Marlin Bowles, Lawrence Zettler, Timothy Bell, Patrick Kelsey.
Relationships Between Soil Characteristics, Distribution and Restoration Potential of The
Federal Threatened Eastern Prairie Fringed Orchid, Platanthera leucophaea (Nutt.) Lindl.
The American Midland Naturalist. Notre Dame:Oct 2005. Vol. 154, Iss. 2, p. 273-285
(13 pp.)
Abstract
The Federal threatened eastern prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera leucophaea) occupies
prairies, sedge meadows, bogs and fens, primarily north of the Wisconsinan glacial
boundary. In the Midwest, where restoration is a recovery objective, its southern
distribution is thought to be limited by the transition from nutrient-rich Wisconsinan-aged
soils to more acidic nutrient poor soils of Illinoian-aged glacial drift. To better understand
edaphic factors affecting its distribution and potential for establishment of new
populations, we analyzed soil characteristics across the range of habitats occupied by
this species, as well as from unoccupied habitats on the Illinoian Till Plain. We found that
P. leucophaea occupies a complex edaphic gradient in variation of % organic matter,
base content and soil texture. On Wisconsinan-aged substrates, it occurs in circumneutral
base-rich organic prairie soils in Illinois and Wisconsin and in less calcareous soils
with slightly higher pH and lower organic matter content in Michigan lake plain prairies.
Eastern sand prairie and sedge meadow habitats on Wisconsinan-aged drift and on
unglaciated soils are moderately acid and nutrient poor, while bog and fen habitats are
more strongly acidic and highly organic, with no evidence for an underlying calcareous
substrate. In comparison, unoccupied prairie soils on the Illinoian till plain have lower pH,
% organic matter and base concentrations. These soils also have relatively high % silt
content which results in comparatively low available soil moisture holding capacity. This
combination of soil conditions may exceed the tolerance limits of P. leucophaea and
prevent this species from occurring south of the Wisconsin glacial boundary in the
Midwest. On the other extreme, calcareous fens have high pH levels as well as extremely
high calcium concentrations, which may exceed the tolerance limits of this species. These
findings have implications for guiding efforts to establish P. leucophaea into habitats that
should be suitable for this species. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
Matthew Appleby
Life on the brink
Horticulture Week. Teddington:Aug 4, 2005. p. 15 (1 pp.)
Abstract
Professional growers' expertise in cultivating rare plants is something [SARA OLDFIELD]
wants to bring to BGCI. The organisation is working with botanic garden network
PlantNetwork to produce a database of propagating techniques to which professional
growers may be able to contribute. Oldfield says the trade has played a "significant role"
in preserving orchids and cacti and can further exchange ideas.
K. L. DAVIES, M. STPICZYNSKA, A. GREGG
Nectar-secreting Floral Stomata in Maxillaria anceps Ames & C. Schweinf.
(Orchidaceae)
Annals of Botany. Oxford:Aug 2005. Vol. 96, Iss. 2, p. 217
Abstract
* Background and Aims Although it was generally assumed that Maxillaria spp. do not
produce nectar, in recent years, nectar has been eported for a number of these orchids.
Nevertheless, our current understanding of nectary structure and nectar secretion in
Maxillaria is based solely on M. coccinea (Jacq.) L.O. Williams ex Hodge, which, since it
shows many features characteristic of ornithophilous flowers, is atypical of this largely
entomophilous genus. The aim of the present paper is to describe, for the first time,
nectar secretion in a presumed entomophilous species of Maxillaria * Methods The
structure of the nectary of M. anceps Ames & C. Schweinf., nectar composition and the
process of nectar secretion were investigated using light microscopy, scanning electron
microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, histochemistry, refractometry and high
performance liquid chromatography * Key Results and Conclusions Nectar appears as
droplets that are exuded by modified stomata borne upon the labellar callus and collects
upon the labellum and at the base of the column-foot. Although such stomata are n
known to occur in a number of angiosperm families, this is the first time for them to be
observed in orchids. The callus consists largely of parenchyma with raphides and is
supplied by eight to ten collateral bundles. This tissue, together with the single-layered
epidermis, seemingly contains terpenoids. During the bud stage, the callus cells contain
an organelle complement consistent with secretory cells whereas by day 4 of anthesis,
much of the cell is occupied by a vacuole. The nectar b is sucrose-dominant but also
contains low concentrations of glucose, fructose, free amino acids and possibly
terpenoids. The high sugar concentration (approx. 66 %) is consistent with melittophily
and may indicate that, like the majority of Maxillaria spp., M. anceps is visited by stingless
bees (Meliponini).
C Eken, S Ercisli, A Esitken, E Demirci, G Y Yuen
First Report of Crown and Stem Rot of Orchid (Orchis palustris) Caused by Sclerotinia
minor
. Plant Disease. St. Paul:Aug 2005. Vol. 89, Iss. 8, p. 913 (1 pp.)
Anonymous.
Orchids stolen from conservation area are unlikely to survive
Horticulture Week. Teddington:Jul 7, 2005. p. 5 (1 pp.)
Abstract
Merseyside Police wildlife crime officer PC Andy McWilliam said: "Even though these
orchids were not endangered, people should be warned that taking flowers for their own
gardens can affect the biological balance of the countryside."
SHIBAO ZHANG, HONG HU, ZHEKUN ZHOU, KUN XU, NING YAN, SHUYUN LI.
Photosynthesis in Relation to Reproductive Success of Cypripedium flavum
Annals of Botany. Oxford:Jul 2005. Vol. 96, Iss. 1, p. 43
Abstract
* Background and Aims Cypripedium flavum is a rare, endemic alpine slipper orchid of
China, which is under threat from excessive collection and habitat changes. Conservation
and re-introduction of C. flavum is restricted by lack of knowledge of the plant's
photosynthesis and how that affects reproductive success. The hypothesis is tested that
reproductive success is determined by photosynthetic production. * Methods To
understand the photosynthetic characteristics and adaptation of C. flavum to alpine
environments, and the relation to reproductive success, measurements were made at
four field sites with varying degrees of forest cover in the Hengduan Mountains, southwest
China. * Key Results Both photosynthetic capacity and reproductive traits of C.
flavum are affected by light availability. Photosynthetic rate (A) is greatest around noon,
following the pattern of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at all sites. Cypripedium
flavum has highest daily mean photosynthetic rate (A daily ) and light-saturated
photosynthetic rate (A max ) under a half to a third of full sunlight. High radiation
decreased A. However, the optimum temperature for photosynthesis was similar (18-20
°C) at all sites. * Conclusions The quotient of daily mean photosynthetic rate to light
saturated photosynthesis (A daily /A max ) is positively correlated with the ramet number
m -2 and percentage of fruiting of C. flavum. The A daily /A max ratio is a useful proxy for
evaluating reproductive success of C. flavum.
Wen-Chieh Tsai, Pei-Fang Lee, Hong-Ie Chen, Yu-Yun Hsiao, Wan-Ju Wei, Zhao-Jun
Pan, Ming-Hsiang Chuang, Chang-Sheng Kuoh, Wen-Huei Chen, Hong-Hwa Chen
PeMADS6, a GLOBOSA/PISTILLATA-like Gene in
Phalaenopsis equestris Involved in Petaloid Formation, and Correlated with
Flower Longevity and Ovary Development
Plant & Cell Physiology. Oxford:Jul 2005. Vol. 46, Iss. 7, p. 1125-39
Abstract
\In this study, we isolated and characterized the function of a GLOBOSA/PISTILLATA-like
gene, PeMADS6, from a native Phalaenopsis species, P. equestris. Southern blot
analysis showed PeMADS6 as a single copy in the Phalaenopsis genome. Results of the
determination of temporal and spatial expression showed that PeMADS6 was expressed
and thus participated in the development of the sepals, petals, labellum and column I
Phalaenopsis. Further confirmation of the expression pattern of PeMADS6 was carried out
with in situ hybridization. Repressed expression of PeMADS6 in the orchid ovary was
found to be pollination regulated, which suggests that the gene may have an inhibitory
effect on the development of the ovary or ovule. In addition, auxin acted as the candidate
signal to regulate the repression of PeMADS6 expression in the ovary. Furthermore, the
flowers of transgenic Arabidopsis plants ectopically overexpressing PeMADS6 showed
the morphology of petaloid sepals, with a 3- to 4-fold increase in flower longevity.
Concomitantly, delayed fruit maturation was also observed in the transgenic Arabidopsis,
which is consistent with the inhibitory effect of PeMADS6 on the development of the
ovary. Thus, as a B-function gene, PeMADS6, not only specifies floral organ identity but
has functions in flower longevity and ovary development in orchids In this study, we
isolated and characterized the function of GLOBOSA/PISTILLATA-like gene, PeMADS6,
from a native Phalaenopsis species, P. equestris. Southern blot analysis showed
PeMADS6 as a single copy in the Phalaenopsis genome. Results of the determination of
temporal and spatial expression showed that PeMADS6 was expressed and thus
participated in the development of the sepals, petals, labellum and column I
Phalaenopsis. Further confirmation of the expression pattern of PeMADS6 was carried
out with in situ hybridization. Repressed expression of PeMADS6 in the orchid ovary was
found to be pollination regulated, which suggests that the gene may have an inhibitory
effect on the development of the ovary or ovule. In addition, auxin acted as the candidat
signal to regulate the repression of PeMADS6 expression in the ovary. Furthermore, the
flowers of transgenic Arabidopsis plants ectopically overexpressing PeMADS6 showed
the morphology of petaloid sepals, with a 3- to 4-fold increase in flower longevity.
Concomitantly, delayed fruit maturation was also observed in the transgenic Arabidopsis,
which is consistent with the inhibitory effect of PeMADS6 on the development of the
ovary. Thus, as a B-function gene, PeMADS6, not only specifies floral organ identity but
has functions in flower longevity and ovary development in orchids.
Anonymous.
Grow Hardy Orchids
Greenhouse Grower. Willoughby:Jun 2005. Vol. 23, Iss. 6, p. 12 (1 pp.)
Abstract
Author William Mathis has written a new book, called "The Gardener's Guide to Growing
Hardy Perennial Orchids," as a step-by-step guide to growing hardy,...
Anonymous.
Orchids Paper plans capacity expansion
Pulp & Paper. San Francisco:Jun 2005. Vol. 79, Iss. 6, p. 12 (1 pp.)
Abstract
Oklahoma recycled tissue producer Orchids Paper Products plans to install a new paper
machine to replace two smaller units in a $27 million project using proceeds from a
pending IPO. The company said it will use the IPO to fund a 70% capacity expansion as
part of a strategy to reduce reliance on outside purchases of parent rolls. A new machine
to replace two 1950's vintage units could lower internal costs to $550/ton.
Charlotte Skov, Jim Wiley
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE NEOTROPICAL ORCHID BEE EUGLOSSA VIRIDISSIMA
(HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) IN FLORIDA
. The Florida Entomologist. Lutz:Jun 2005. Vol. 88, Iss. 2, p. 225-227 (3 pp.)
Peach Waser.
International orchid fair launches in Switzerland
Horticulture Week. Teddington:May 19, 2005. p. 7 (1 pp.)
Abstract
Swiss artist Hans Erni launched Orchideea '05 - the first international orchid fair in
Lucerne, 5-8 May-by christening the Cypripedium Hans Erni. It was one of several
introductions at what looks set to become an annual event.
M. STPICZYNSKA, K. L. DAVIES, A. GREGG.
Comparative Account of Nectary Structure in Hexisea imbricata (Lindl.) Rchb.f.
(Orchidaceae)
Annals of Botany. Oxford:Apr 16, 2005. Vol. 95, Iss. 5, p. 749
Abstract
* Background and Aims Despite the number of orchid species that are thought to be
pollinated by hummingbirds, our knowledge of the nectaries of these orchids is based
solely on a single species, Maxillaria coccinea (Jacq.) L.O. Williams ex Hodge.
Nevertheless, it is predicted that such nectaries are likely to be very diverse and the
purpose of this paper is to compare the nectary and the process of nectar secretion in
Hexisea imbricata (Lindl.) Rchb.f. with that of Maxillaria coccinea so as to begin to
characterize the nectaries of presumed ornithophilous Neotropical orchids n* Methods
Light microscopy, transmission electronmicroscopy and histochemistry were used to
examine the histology and chemical composition of nectary tissue and the process of
nectar secretion in H. imbricate * Key Results and Conclusions The nectary of H.
imbricata has a vascular supply, is bound by a single-layered epidermis with few
stomata and comprises two or three layers of subepidermal secretory cells beneath
which lie several layers of palisade-like parenchymatous cells, some of which contain
raphides or mucilage. The secretory cells are collenchymatous and their walls have
numerous pits with associated plasmodesmata. They contain the full complement of
organelles characteristic of secretory cells as well as intravacuolar protein bodies but
some of the secretory epidermal cells, following secretion, collapse and their anticlinal
walls seem to fold. Nectar secretion is thought to be granulocrine and, following starch
depletion, lipid droplets collect within the plastids. The nectar accumulates beneath the
cuticle which subsequently forms swellings. Finally, nectar collects in the saccate nectary
spur formed by the fusion of the margins of the labellum and the base of the column-foot.
Thus, although the nectary of H. imbricata and M. coccinea have many features in
common, they nevertheless display a number of important differences.
MARIO A. BLANCO, GABRIEL BARBOZA
Pseudocopulatory Pollination in Lepanthes (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) by Fungus
Gnats
. Annals of Botany. Oxford:Apr 16, 2005. Vol. 95, Iss. 5, p. 763
Abstract
* Background and Aims Lepanthes is one of the largest angiosperm genera (>800
species). Their non-rewarding, tiny and colourful flowers are structurally complex. Their
pollination mechanism has hitherto remained unknown, but has been subject of ample
speculation; the function of the minuscule labellum appendix is especially puzzling. Here,
the pollination of L. glicensteinii by sexually deceived male fungus gnats is described
and illustrated. * Methods Visitors to flowers of L. glicensteinii were photographed and
their behaviour documented; some were captured for identification. Occasional visits to
flowers of L. helleri, L. stenorhyncha and L. turialvae were also observed. Structural
features of flowers and pollinators were studied with SEM. * Key Results Sexually
aroused males of the fungus gnat Bradysia floribunda (Diptera: Sciaridae) were the only
visitors and pollinators of L. glicensteinii. The initial long-distance attractant seems to be
olfactory. Upon finding a flower, the fly curls his abdomen under the labellum and grabs
the appendix with his genitalic claspers, then dismounts the flower and turns around to
face away from it. The pollinarium attaches to his abdomen during this pivoting
manoeuvre. Pollinia are deposited on the stigma during a subsequent flower visit. The
flies appear to ejaculate during pseudocopulation. The visitors of L. helleri, L.
stenorhyncha and L. turialvae are different species of fungus gnats that display a similar
behaviour. * Conclusions Lepanthes glicensteinii has genitalic pseudocopulatory
pollination, the first case reported outside of the Australian orchid genus Cryptostylis.
Since most species of Lepanthes have the same unusual flower structure, it is predicted
that pollination by sexual deception is prevalent in the genus. Several morphological and
phenological traits in Lepanthes seem well suited for exploiting male fungus gnats as
pollinators. Correspondingly, some demographic trends common in Lepanthes are
consistent with patterns of male sciarid behaviour.
Anonymous.
SCIENCE INTO PRACTICE
Horticulture Week. Teddington:Apr 14, 2005. p. 6 (1 pp.)
Abstract
The Pesticides Safety Directorate has issued sever al full pesticide approvals for
ornamental production. Kresoxy and Supreme from Tronsan have been given approval
for disease control on both outdoor and indoor crops. Ferromol Slug Killer, marketed by
Growing Success Organics. has been given approval as a slug bait on both indoor and
outdoor crops while Greencrop Orchid B from Greencrop Technology has been given
approval for use as a disease control on protected plants.
Jennifer Funk.
Picking The Perfect (Plant) Mate
Greenhouse Grower. Willoughby:Apr 2005. Vol. 23, Iss. 4, p. 56,58 (2 pp.)
Abstract
"I'd love to think I'm an orchid, and it'd be very flattering if someone gave it to me, but I'm
more of a Calandiva/gerbera mix," says [MICHELLE Brennan], who came up with the
idea after realizing there were certain plants she loved but didn't fit into her busy lifestyle.
"I fit with those plants and they survive in my household. So I consider that advantageous
as a consumer. I think it makes it a much better gifted program in the marketplace. It's
advising people."
Anonymous.
IMPULSE POWER
Horticulture Week.: Garden Retail Teddington:Mar/Apr 2005. p. 38 (1 pp.)
Abstract
Also selling well are orchids, even in the £24.99 to £50 price bracket. "People want to
decorate their homes after Christmas and the winter," she adds. "Homewares in general
are doing well and we've...
Mary Margaret Chappell
FALL IN LOVE...WITH vanilla
. Vegetarian Times. Oak Park:Feb 2005. Iss. 328, p. 65-67 (3 pp.)
Abstract
If chocolate is the Casanova of flavors--that rich, dark seducer that can send one into a
swoon--then vanilla is The Boy Next Door, the sweet, familiar taste one has known since
childhood and take for granted. Vanilla plants are tropical vining orchids and the only
members of the orchid family whose flowers have an edible fruit. Today, producing long,
dark, fragrant vanilla beans is a year-long endeavor that involves hand pollinating the
blossoms, aging the beans on the vine for nine months, then curing them for three to four
months--all done on small farms in a handful of tropical regions.
Anonymous.
HOT SELLER Orchids (various)
Horticulture Week. Teddington:Jan 27, 2005. p. 8 (1 pp.)
Abstract
[Andy Knight] is also seeing steady sales of indoor palms at the centre. He added:
"Unusually for the time of year, even our bigger specimen indoor palms, ranging from £50
to £90, are doing well.
MARK W. CHASE, LYNDA HANSON, VICTOR A. ALBERT, W. MARK WHITTEN,
NORRIS H. WILLIAMS
Life History Evolution and Genome Size in Subtribe Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae)
. Annals of Botany.: Plant Genome Size Oxford:Jan 2, 2005. Vol. 95, Iss. 1, p. 191
Abstract
* Background and Aims Within Oncidiinae, there are several groups of species that are
effectively annuals, and we wished to see if these species had smaller genome sizes
than average for the subtribe. * Methods Fifty-four genome size estimates (50 of which are
new) for species in subtribe Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae) were examined for the first time
in a phylogenetic context to evaluate hypotheses concerning genomeb sizes and life
history traits. * Results and Conclusions Within the limits of still relatively sparse
sampling, the species that are effectively annuals do appear to have smaller genome
sizes than average. However, the genome sizes of their immediate sister group are also
small, indicating that changes in genome size preceded the change in life history traits.
Genome sizes and chromosome numbers also do not correlate; some slowly growing
species have lower chromosome numbers but large genomes and vice versa. Based on
a survey of the literature on orchids, it is also clear that epiphytic species have smaller
genome sizes than do terrestrial species, which could be an effect of different water
relations or the fact that most terrestrial orchids are geophytic or have distinct growth and
dormancy phases.
Olinto Liparini Pereira, Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya, Arnaldo Chaer Borges, Elza
Fernandes de Ara├║jo.
Canadian Journal of Botany. Morphological and molecular characterization of
mycorrhizal fungi isolated from neotropical orchids in Brazil Ottawa:Jan 2005. Vol. 83,
Iss. 1, p. 54-65 (12 pp.)
Abstract
To initiate a conservation program of the Orchidaceae from the Brazilian Atlantic rain
forest with the purpose of ex situ conservation or reintroduction in the State of Minas
Gerais, seven mycorrhizal Rhizoctonia-like fungal strains were isolated from roots of
seven neotropical orchid species from three different Atlantic rain forest fragments.
Taxonomic studies revealed that the isolates belong to the genera Ceratorhiza and
Epulorhiza. The Epulorhiza isolates were identified as Epulorhiza repens (N. Bernard)
R.T. Moore and Epulorhiza epiphytica Pereira, Rollemberg et Kasuya. RAPD analysis
indicated higher polymorphism between Epulorhiza epiphytica and Epulorhiza repens
than found in the PCR-RFLP analysis. RAPD and morphological analyses indicated a
degree of relatedness among the Ceratorhiza isolates obtained from the roots of
different Oncidium species. A combination of morphological and molecular
characterizations permitted integration of fungal strain identification n with genetic
relatedness among the isolates, thus allowing some inferences to be made on specificity
of these endosymbionts under field conditions.
Key words: biodiversity, Ceratorhiza, Epulorhiza, orchid mycorrhiza,
Rhizoctonia-like, symbiosis, specificity.
Tovah Martin.
plants worth having
Organic Gardening. Emmaus:Dec 2004/Jan 2005. Vol. 52, Iss. 1, p. 64 (1 pp.)
Abstract
With big, grinning elf-faced flowers perched atop elegant spikes, the lady slipper orchid is
the perfect winter blah-buster. Tips on how to grow the plant are offered.
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